The impact of gender-role-orientations on subjective career success: A multilevel study of 36 societies


  • Terpstra-Tong Jane
  • Ralston David
  • Treviño Len
  • Karam Charlotte
  • Furrer Olivier
  • Froese Fabian
  • Tjemkes Brian
  • Darder Fidel León
  • Richards Malika
  • Dabic Marina
  • Li Yongjuan
  • Fu Pingping
  • Molteni Mario
  • Palmer Ian
  • Tučková Zuzana
  • Szabo Erna
  • Poeschl Gabrielle
  • Hemmert Martin
  • Butt Arif
  • de la Garza Teresa
  • Susniene Dalia
  • Suzuki Satoko
  • Srinivasan Narasimhan
  • Gutierrez Jamie Ruiz
  • Ricard Antonin
  • Buzády Zoltán
  • Paparella Luis Sigala
  • Morales Oswaldo
  • Naidoo Vik
  • Kangasniemi-Haapala Maria
  • Dalgic Tevfik
  • Alas Ruth
  • Potocan Vojko
  • Dharmasiri Ajantha
  • Fang Yongqing
  • Burns Calvin
  • Crowley-Henry Marian


  • Gender-role-orientation
  • Conservation of resources
  • BEM sex role inventory BSRI
  • Hierarchical linear modeling HLM

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We investigate the relationships between gender-role-orientation (i.e., androgynous, masculine, feminine and undifferentiated) and subjective career success among business professionals from 36 societies. Drawing on the resource management perspective, we predict that androgynous individuals will report the highest subjective career success, followed by masculine, feminine, and undifferentiated individuals. We also postulate that meso-organizational culture and macro-societal values will have moderating effects on gender role's impact on subjective career success. The results of our hierarchical linear models support the hypothesized hierarchy of the relationships between gender-role-orientations and subjective career success. However, we found that ethical achievement values at the societal culture level was the only variable that had a positive moderating impact on the relationship between feminine orientation and subjective career success. Thus, our findings of minimal moderation effect suggest that meso- and macro-level environments may not play a significant role in determining an individual's perception of career success.

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